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In the fifties, the Indian government, under its first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, developed a centrally planned economic policy that focused on the agricultural sector. The administration nationalized commercial banks  and was established, according to the Law of banking companies, 1949 (later called the Law of banking regulation), a regulation of the central bank as part of the
. In addition, it was entrusted to the central bank that would support the economic plan with loans. 
As a result of bank failures, the RBI was asked to establish and monitor a deposit insurance system. In order to restore confidence in the system of the national bank, it was initialized on December 7, 1961. The government of India founded funds to promote the economy and used the motto "Developing banking." The Indian government restructured the national bank market and nationalized many institutes. As a result, the RBI had to play the central part in the control and support of this public banking sector.
In 1969, the government of Indira Gandhi nationalized 14 major commercial banks. After the return of power to Indira Gandhi in 1980, six more banks were nationalized.  The regulation of the economy and especially of the financial sector was reinforced by the Government of India in the 1970s and 1980s.  The central bank became the central player and increased its policies greatly For many tasks such as interests, reserve ratio and visible deposits.  These measures aimed at better economic development and had a great effect on the business policy of the institutes. Banks lent money to certain sectors, such as agricultural companies and small business enterprises. 
The branch was forced to establish two new offices in the country for each office recently established in a city.  The oil crises of 1973 caused a growing inflation, and the RBI restricted monetary policy to reduce the effects. 
Many commissions analyzed the Indian economy between 1985 and 1991. Their results had an effect on the RBI. The Industrial and Financial Reconstruction Board, the Indira Gandhi Institute for Development Research and the Security and Exchange Board of India, investigated the national economy as a whole, and the security and exchange board proposed better methods for more effective markets and protection of the interests of investors. . The Indian financial market was a leading example of the so-called "financial repression" (Mckinnon and Shaw).  The Discount and Finance House of India began its operations on the money market in April 1988; The National Housing Bank, founded in July 1988, was forced to invest in the real estate market and a new financial right improved the versatility of the direct deposit for more security and liberalization measures. 
1991-2000 the new century
The national economy was contracted in July 1991 when the Indian rupee was devalued.  The currency lost 18% of its value with respect to the US dollar, and the Narsimham Committee advised the restructuring of the financial sector for a reduced temporary reserve ratio, as well as the statutory liquidity ratio. New guidelines for establishing a private banking sector were published in 1993. This turning point was to strengthen the market and it was often called neoliberal.  The central bank deregulated banking interests and some sectors of the financial market as the markets of trust and ownership.  This first phase was a success and the central government forced a liberalization of diversity to diversify the proprietary structures in 1998. 
The National Stock Exchange of India made the trade in June 1994 and the RBI allowed nationalized banks in July to interact with the capital market to strengthen their capital base. The central bank founded a subsidiary company: the Bharatiya Reserve Bank Note Mudran Private Limited, on February 3, 1995 to produce tickets. 
The 1999 Foreign Exchange Policy Law came into effect in June 2000. The document 2004-2005 (Transfer of national electronic funds) should be improved.  The Printing & Minting Printing Corporation of India Ltd. , a merger of nine institutions, was founded in 2006 and produces bills and coins. 
The growth rate of the national economy dropped to 5.8% in the last quarter of 2008-2009  and the central bank promotes economic development. 
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